How do mutations affect DNA replication?
A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke. Mutations can occur during DNA replication if errors are made and not corrected in time.
What is the error rate of DNA after it has been proofread?
E coli makes so few errors because DNA is proofread in multiple ways. An enzyme, DNA polymerase, moves along the DNA strands to start copying the code from each strand of DNA. This process has an error rate of about one in 100,000: rather high.
Can you mutate your genes?
A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people. Mutations range in size; they can affect anywhere from a single DNA building block (base pair) to a large segment of a chromosome that includes multiple genes.
What is the rarest genetic trait?
The rare body feature distichiasis is, according to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, a “condition in which an extra row of eyelashes emerges from the ducts of meibomian glands.” It results from a genetic mutation of the FOXC2 gene. Elizabeth Taylor had this mutation to thank for her voluminous lashes.
What does ATM gene stand for?
It has been given the name ATM gene, which stands for Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated. The ATM gene is a particularly big gene (for those interested in the details, it is made up of 66 exons and more than 150kb of DNA).
What type of mutation causes ataxia telangiectasia?
Mutations in the ATM gene cause ataxia-telangiectasia. The ATM gene provides instructions for making a protein that helps control cell division and is involved in DNA repair.