How does hypertension affect bone density?

How does hypertension affect bone density?

The number of patients with high blood pressure and osteoporosis are increased year by year in our society. In hypertension patients, excess urinary calcium secretion induces secondary parathyroidism to increase serum calcium level by calcium release from bone, which may accelerate osteoporosis.

Can hypertension affect bones?

Several studies [11, 12] have indicated that hypertension is negatively correlated with bone mineral density. Cappuccio F P [11] and his colleague conducted a prospective study of 3676 women, and they found that high blood pressure in elderly white women is associated with increased bone loss at the femoral neck.

Can hypertension cause fractures?

In conclusion, hypertension and stroke seem to be the major cardiovascular risk factors for fractures, whereas acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and deep venous thromboembolism seem to be only minor risk factors.

What is considered a fragility fracture?

Fragility fractures are fractures that result from mechanical forces that would not ordinarily result in fracture, known as low-level (or ‘low energy’) trauma. The World Health Organization (WHO) has quantified this as forces equivalent to a fall from a standing height or less.

Is hypertension a risk factor for osteoporosis?

Multivariate regression analysis showed that hypertension was a significant influencing factor for osteoporosis (P < 0.05). In addition, increased age, menarche age, and milk consumption were related to an increased risk of osteoporosis.

What is the role of sodium in hypertension and osteoporosis?

A high salt intake has been associated with hypertension as well as osteoporosis and one of the proposed pathogenetic mechanisms is an increased calcium excretion in urine. Urinary calcium loss induces a negative calcium balance that may predispose hypertensive subjects to developing greater bone loss.

What bones are most vulnerable to osteoporosis and why?

Although all bones can be affected by the disease, the bones of the spine, hip, and wrist are most likely to break. In older people, hip fractures can be particularly dangerous. Having to stay still for a long time during the healing process can lead to possibly deadly complications, like blood clots or pneumonia.

Can osteoporosis cause high blood pressure?

Interestingly, there appears to be a relationship between hypertension and osteoporosis, particularly in women. Bone loss is associated with blood pressure in older women [6], and hypertension increases the incidence of hip fracture in women [7].

What are the most common types of fragility fractures?

Spine fractures are the most frequent fragility fractures and the second ones for morbidity and mortality in the elderly group after hip fractures.

What is a low impact fracture?

Low-impact fracture was defined as a fracture occurring spontaneously or from a fall no greater than standing height.

Does salt remove calcium from bones?

Salt is a major factor in controlling the amount of calcium in the urine and lost from the bones. Because calcium is important for bone strength, too much salt can lead to bone weakening and therefore osteoporosis.

What is the most common osteoporosis related fracture?

Fractures caused by osteoporosis most often occur in the spine. Spinal fractures — called vertebral compression fractures — occur an estimated 1.5 million times each year in the United States. They are almost twice as common as other fractures typically linked to osteoporosis, such as broken hips and wrists.

Who is at high risk of fragility fracture?

Routine assessment of risk is not recommended for people under 50 years unless they have major risk factors, as they are unlikely to be at high risk of fragility fracture. The suggested high risk groups are current or recent use of oral or systemic glucocorticoids, untreated premature menopause, or previous fragility fracture.

What tools should be used to estimate absolute risk of fragility fracture?

The guideline recommends the use of absolute risk of fragility fracture and recommends use of one of two tools: FRAX®2or QFracture®.3Both of these tools provide estimation of absolute fracture risk over a 10-year period. They have slightly different age ranges: the current age ranges are FRAX 40–90 years and QFracture 30–84 years.

What is a fragility fracture?

Fragility fractures result from mechanical forces that would not ordinarily result in fracture. The World Health Organization (WHO) has quantified this as forces equivalent to a fall from a standing height or less. Reduced bone density is a major risk factor for fragility fractures.

How is osteoporosis diagnosed in patients with fragility fractures?

Osteoporosis is diagnosed by the presence of a fragility fracture or by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the absence of a fragility fracture. In 2011, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that all women ≥65 years should be screened for osteoporosis by DXA.