What is cardiovascular decompensation?
By cardiac decompensation is meant a combination of symptoms and signs that indicate that the heart by reason of its abnormal condition no longer is able to maintain an efficient circulation. In cardiac decompensation is not included the circulatory failure of acute infectious diseases.
What does decompensation in heart failure mean?
Decompensated heart failure (DHF) is defined as a clinical syndrome in which a structural or functional change in the heart leads to its inability to eject and/or accommodate blood within physiological pressure levels, thus causing a functional limitation and requiring immediate therapeutic intervention(1).
What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac decompensation?
Common signs and symptoms include dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), peripheral edema, nausea/vomiting, weight gain or weight loss, elevated jugular venous pressure, hepatomegaly, pulmonary rales, cardiac gallops (S3 or S4), and pleural effusions, to name a few.
When does heart failure become decompensated?
Decompensated heart failure has been defined as heart failure with a relatively rapid onset of signs and symptoms, resulting in hospitalization or unplanned office or emergency room visits. Most of these episodes result from worsening or decompensation of chronic heart failure (Table 17-1).
What are the signs of decompensated heart failure?
Decompensated HF is characterised by an increase in symptoms such as breathlessness, fatigue, and fluid retention. It remains a lethal diagnosis with morbidity and mortality rates that often exceed neoplastic or infectious diseases.
What causes decompensated heart failure?
Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) refers to rapid onset of fluid volume overload. The most common causes are medication and dietary noncompliance; however, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, uncontrolled hypertension, and infections such as endocarditis may also cause acute decompensated heart failure.
What is the most common cause of decompensated heart failure?
The most common causes are medication and dietary noncompliance; however, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, uncontrolled hypertension, and infections such as endocarditis may also cause acute decompensated heart failure.
How do you manage decompensated heart failure?
Early intravenous vasodilator therapy with an agent that lowers arterial tone (eg, nitroprusside) is suggested in selected patients with ADHF who require a rapid decrease in systemic vascular resistance and LV afterload (eg, those with severe hypertension, acute mitral regurgitation, or acute aortic regurgitation).
What does it mean if a patient is decompensated?
Definition of decompensation : loss of physiological or psychological compensation especially : inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation.