What is the survivin gene?
Survivin is the smallest member of the Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins, involved in inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle. These functional attributes make Survivin a unique protein exhibiting divergent functions i.e. regulating cell proliferation and cell death.
How does Survivin inhibit apoptosis?
Survivin is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, which has key roles in regulating cell division and inhibiting apoptosis by blocking caspase activation. Survivin is highly expressed in most human cancers, such as lung, pancreatic and breast cancers, relative to normal tissues.
When is survivin expressed?
It forms part of the chromosomal passenger complex, which regulates chromosome segregation and cytokinesis during mitosis (Lens et al., 2006). Whereas in normal tissues survivin is mainly expressed during the G2/M-phase of the cell-cycle, it is also expressed in interphase in tumor cells.
Where is survivin found?
Survivin is expressed in embryonic and foetal tissues, but is undetectable in normal adult tissues8. However, overexpression of survivin has been reported in almost all human malignancies including bladder cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach, oesophagus, liver, ovarian cancers and haematological cancers8,28.
What is survivin promoter?
The survivin promoter also induced transgene expression of a mutant Bik in cancer cells, which suppressed the growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that the survivin promoter is a cancer-specific promoter for various cancers and that it may be useful in cancer gene therapy.
What is the function of p21 in cell cycle?
p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI). The p21 (CIP1/WAF1) protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2, -CDK1, and -CDK4/6 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and S phase.
Who discovered caspases?
Discovery of caspases Robert Horvitz initially established the importance of caspases in apoptosis and found that the ced-3 gene is required for the cell death that took place during the development of the nematode C. elegans.
What is the purpose of caspase?
Caspases are involved in cell death mediated by apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and autophagy. Caspase function is not limited to cell death. Non-apoptotic roles of caspases include proliferation, tumor suppression, differentiation, neural development and axon guidance and aging.
What does the survivin gene do?
The survivin gene codifies a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and inhibition of the apoptotic pathway, and a polymorphism located in its promoter region is associated with gene regulation.
What is the structure and function of survivin?
Overview of survivin structure and functions. The gene encoding human survivin was cloned by Ambrosini et al in 1997. Survivin spans 14.7 kb at the telomeric end of chromosome 17 and encodes the 16.5 kD wild-type survivin protein of 142 amino acids in length.
What is the relationship between survivin gene variants and oral cancer?
A study conducted in Taiwanese population reported significantly higher risk for oral cancer with -31GG, +9194GG, and +9809 TThomozygotes of survivin gene variants in comparison to wild type genotype75. An expression study by Khan et al46showed 72 per cent of survivin expression in tissue samples of oral cancer.
Is survivin involved in the pathophysiology of cancer?
Evidences indicate that the expression of survivin is altered in cancer, and that certain changes may be directly implicated in the carcinogenic process. Due to its role as a cancer gene intersecting multiple cellular networks, survivin has been vigorously used as a cancer drug target.