What options are there in imaging the biliary tree?
Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and ERCP all have a role in the diagnosis of biliary pathologies.
What are the divisions of the biliary tree?
Gross anatomy By convention the biliary tree is divided into intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts 1.
What are the types of cholangiocarcinoma?
There are two types of bile duct cancer:
- Intrahepatic bile duct cancer: This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts inside the liver. Only a small number of bile duct cancers are intrahepatic.
- Extrahepatic bile duct cancer: This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts outside the liver.
What is the biliary tree made up of?
The biliary tree (also known as the biliary tract or biliary system) is comprised of the gallbladder, liver and bile ducts. These structures produce, store, and release bile to the small intestines, where it aids in the digestion of lipids.
What is the difference between HIDA scan and MRCP?
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography can be used to determine the cause and location of biliary obstruction but is limited in the detection of small stones and the evaluation of the biliary tract near the ampulla. HIDA is used to evaluate for cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, and bile leaks.
What is difference between adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma?
Adenocarcinomas, the most common type of extrahepatic bile duct cancer, form in the cells of the mucous gland lining the inside of the bile duct. Adenocarcinomas account for about 95 percent of all bile duct cancers. Bile duct adenocarcinoma is also called cholangiocarcinoma.
What is the tumor marker for cholangiocarcinoma?
The tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) can be evaluated in pancreatic and bile duct malignancies, as well as in benign cholestasis. A serum CA 19-9 level greater than 100 U/mL (normal < 40 U/mL) has 75% sensitivity and 80% specificity in identifying patients with PSC who have cholangiocarcinoma.
What is biliary tree and function?
The biliary system, also called the biliary tract or biliary tree, is a system of ducts (narrow tubular structures), organs (including the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas), and associated structures that function to produce, store, secrete, and transport bile.
What are the anatomic variants of the biliary tree?
Clinical Applications Conclusion References CITING ARTICLES The most common anatomic variants in the branching of the biliary tree described involve the right posterior duct and its fusion with the right anterior or left hepatic duct [ 2, 3 ].
What is the biliary tree of the liver?
Various channels that collect bile from the hepatic parenchyma and transport it to the duodenum constitute the biliary tree. By convention the biliary tree is divided into intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts 1.
What is the aberrant hepatic duct (or right-sided) biliary variant?
The direct drainage of the right posterior duct into the common hepatic duct, right- or left-sided, is a variant also known as the aberrant hepatic duct and is present in approximately 5% and less than 1% of the population, respectively [ 2, 3] (Figs. 10 and 11 ). Fig. 10. —Uncommon biliary variant in 54-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis.
What percentage of the population has normal biliary anatomy?
This normal biliary anatomy is thought to be present in 58% of the population [ 3 ]. Fig. 1. —Normal biliary anatomy. Drawing shows normal hepatic biliary segmental anatomy, as described by Couinaud [ 1 ], and normal fusion of cystic duct with common hepatic duct.