What are the molecules involved in DNA replication?
New DNA is made by enzymes called DNA polymerases, which require a template and a primer (starter) and synthesize DNA in the 5′ to 3′ direction. DNA replication requires other enzymes in addition to DNA polymerase, including DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA ligase, and topoisomerase.
What is a DNA primer in PCR?
A primer is a short, single-stranded DNA sequence used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the PCR method, a pair of primers is used to hybridize with the sample DNA and define the region of the DNA that will be amplified. Primers are also referred to as oligonucleotides.
What are the 3 steps in PCR?
Amplification is achieved by a series of three steps: (1) denaturation, in which double-stranded DNA templates are heated to separate the strands; (2) annealing, in which short DNA molecules called primers bind to flanking regions of the target DNA; and (3) extension, in which DNA polymerase extends the 3′ end of each …
How does PCR work step by step?
What is the PCR process?Step 1: Denaturation. As in DNA replication, the two strands in the DNA double helix need to be separated. Step 2: Annealing. Primers bind to the target DNA sequences and initiate polymerisation. Step 3: Extension. New strands of DNA are made using the original strands as templates.